Autoimmune Stomatitis In Cats - General Information
The definition of "stomatitis" is represented by two Latin roots "stoma" - mouth, and "itis" - inflammation. The total meaning of the disease - an inflammation of the mouth, but this definition is used in practice is relatively rare because it is not accurately determine the nature of the disease. In the oral cavity are many different organs, and it is not always clear what is meant. However, the term "stomatitis" more accurately describes the disease. In this case, usually described generalized inflammation of the mucous membranes, which applies to many organs of the mouth - the gums, periodontal, tongue, palate, pharynx and others.
Causes of feline stomatitis, including gangrenous, the set, but in this species, the disease is often characterized by specificity associated with autoimmune processes. The immune system of the cat rejects out the body own teeth, treating them as a foreign object. This happens either because of a defect in the immune system, or due to impact of bacterial plaque of the teeth, which provokes animal's immunnitet . However, there are other possible causes of the disease, eg, uremic stomatitis in cats that occurs as a symptom of chronic renal failure.
Autoimmune stomatitis in cats is called also by other terms, including chronic lymphocytic gingivostomatit, generalized inflammation of the mouth and immune-mediated feline stomatitis.
How the autoimmune stomatitis in cats is different from the usual?
As already noted, stomatitis in cats, in most cases, is specific - immune calf cease to recognize dental tissue as a family, and begin to aggressively attack them. This process gives rise to a strong inflammatory effect and violates density protective mucous membranes of the oral cavity. Later, in the inflammation involved pathogens - viruses, bacteria, fungi and microscopic disease is further exacerbated.
At the same time in cats can develop inflammation in the oral cavity without provoking the immune system involvement. This is possible when infected tissue organs located in the mouth as a result of mechanical damage, or other extra-wide disease symptom. The latter include renal disease of the gastrointestinal tract and some viral diseases. More details about these reasons - in the following paragraphs.
Often veterinarians need to distinguish autoimmune stomatitis in cats from normal. To do this, pay attention to the following symptoms that are typical of this variety of the disease:
- distribution of inflammatory lesions on the oral mucosa is observed everywhere. In the early stages of the disease is uniformly inflamed area peridonta (tissue next to the tooth root) on all dental arcades, on both jaws. This localization of inflammation at the root of many of the teeth - the main clinical sign of autoimmune stomatitis in cats. At later stages, the inflammatory processes are moving to the cheek tissues, throat, tongue, upper and lower sky;
- symptoms of the disease is extremely difficult, and in other cases - it is impossible to suppress them by the classical treatment options. A favorable prognosis can be guaranteed only with the full or partial removal of teeth in cats;
- during diagnostic is held the biopsy of the tissue in the inflammation. Histological analysis puts an end to the confirmation of the autoimmune component of stomatitis.
Other stomatitis characterized by a high effect of drug therapy, while inflammation is rarely extend to the entire oral cavity. In addition, inflammatory sites are not necessarily positioned closer to the tooth roots.